What I also find interesting, is that within the body of the Didache, there is no mention or explanation of the gospel, salvation and, justification by faith, etc. There was only one mention of grace in the entire document and, it was in a prayer that was to be prayed after taking communion. This mention did not explain or thank God for the grace that he poured out on the saints in Christ Jesus. There is no mention of the Lord’s death, burial and, resurrection but, there is a mention of the hope of resurrection at the very end.
Now, while I believe that the Sermon on the Mount has instruction that is very valuable, obedience to it is still not evidence of salvation and, it is not the Law of Christ. I side with those who believe that Jesus was amplifying the Law of Moses to the Jews. After all, the SOM was spoken to Jews who were under the Old Covenant and, he was trying to show them that they were not obeying the Law blamelessly. We know that they thought they were from Paul’s statement in Phil 3:5-6. Paul said that as a Pharisee and the righteousness that is in the Law he was blameless. So then, Jesus amplified the Law by showing them (the Jews) that lust was adultery and anger was murder.
Now, back to the Didache and the Sermon on the Mount. If it was the Law of Christ then why didn’t the apostles say so in Acts fifteen? When the question of Gentile obedience came up, the apostles via James wrote the following: Act 15:28-29 NKJV For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: (29) that you abstain from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. Farewell. If the SOM and the Didache were really the apostolic teaching…then wouldn’t the apostles have circulated the Didache? Of course they would have….Under the new covenant, obedience is the obedience of faith and the dynamic for obedience is completely different than the read and do of the Old Covenant.